Before going to understand programming concepts, one has
to understand what the program does. It is a well known fact that, a program
is a set of instructions that performs a particular
task. In other words, a program is set of codes which perform
action on what it instructed to do. An instruction has got
its own pre-defined responsibilities to be carried on inside
a computer system.
Computer programming is the process of designing, writing, testing,
debugging and maintaining the program instructions. In a computer,
the programs are written in many computer languages. Computer languages
are like the languages, which one uses to communicate with each
In spoken languages, we have to follow some rules and convey what
we think, in an understandable form. Like the languages, which we
use to speak, computer languages also have a particular set of syntax
and meanings. These are to be followed before writing a program.
Before we write any program, we should think, analyze, and build
a meaningful logic for program. We cut the vegetables into pieces,
before we cook them for our daily food. In the same way, we have
to work on the logic first, which creates a good program. After
this process is completed, we will try to implement the worked out
logic in to a nice program.
In a systematic software development environment, once a customer
gives required inputs as well as the desired outputs, one cannot
just directly start developing the software. First of all, one has
to plan how they are going to write a program. It requires studying
the step by step analysis of solutions for the problems which may
occur at the time of program development.
Technically speaking, one must first write algorithms, flowcharts
for the understood problem area to find solutions. In a systematic
development environment, they follow these steps before start developing
the desired or required software for their customers. This helps
the programmer to understand the problem and solution to the problem
area, before writing the actual program.
The programmer then develops the required program in the way, which
is specified in the flowchart and algorithms. All these steps are
necessary, because if a programmer from the team quits, then, any
other can easily take his place and continue developing the software.
It even helps the team to quickly analyze the program, if it has
to be upgraded with some new enhancements or correcting some errors
with the software, if found any, at the later stage, during implementation.
Algorithm is a list of systematic instructions for solving a given
problem. The instructions given in the algorithm are of simple English.
The algorithm is the instructional representation of solution to
a given problem.
The Flowchart is more specific than algorithm. As the name itself
indicates, a flowchart is a pictorial representation of the solution
to the given problem. When the problem is given to a programmer,
first he analyses the problem, finds solution and then studies the
complexity of converting it into software program. If he finds the
complexity is too high in such a way that, no programmer in his
team, can handle such complexity, easily, he will opt for writing
a flow chart also, along with the algorithm.
Software programs are developed using many programming languages,
especially now days. Earlier, it was written using machine language,
which was a tedious language to understand. The machine language
comprised of instructions that are made up of 0’s and 1’s.
The complexity of the language led to the invention of a better
language called Assembly language. This significantly improved the
quality of the programs and also the understandability of the programs.
This language was written using code words called mnemonics. However
people found difficulty in understanding these code words too.
This led to the development of a newer version of language called
as higher level language. The format of this language was simple
to understand and write. So, people started learning and went on
inventing many programming languages on this higher level language.
Today, the majority of the programs were developed using any one
of the higher level languages. The programmer should know the syntax
of the language and the different concepts related to the language,
before he could easily manage with the language.
Once he codes for a program, the program will get tested. There
are several ways to test the developed software. In this stage,
if any problem is found then, the programmer will correct the problems
and resubmit it for testing again. This process will go on until
the software works to its level best, before it being installed
in the client’s place.
Thus, programming is not an easy task. But, still we can make it
easy n’ sweet like chocolate ice cream, if we could study
the programming logic very well.